The following article is my guest post on The Simple Catholic blog. Visit The Simple Catholic blog at thesimplecatholic.blog for great content.
When it comes to Catholic social teaching it is fairly easy to find books on individual topics. In this volume, which is a third, edition, Kevin E. McKenna gives concise explanations on every aspect of Catholic social teaching. The author is Pastor and Rector of the Cathedral community in Rochester, NY. He has extensive experience in Catholic social teaching and Canon law. He is also the general editor for the concise series by Ave Maria Press.
The book is broken down into seven chapters that delve with vital topics such as the dignity of life and care for God’s creation. What I appreciated most, besides the conciseness of the work, was that the beginnings of each chapter listed the various encyclicals and church documents that are summarized. This allows the reader to find those documents and read them for themselves.
As previously stated, this is the third edition and the encyclicals written by Pope Francis have been included in this volume. This book is a must have in my opinion because it is a good reference piece. If there is a question on a topic of Catholic social teaching this resource is one that can be used easily to get the answer. It is good for anyone who teaches or writes about the faith s these issues will come up regularly.
[Note: This book was obtained free of charge from Ave Maria Press in exchange for an honest review.]
When we speak of divine providence it can be hard to understand how free will, efficacious grace, and perseverative grace can exist can fully exist within its context. If God knows how everything will turn out, then how can we truly exercise free will? These topics can be confusing to those who are just beginning their journey in faith, but they do have an explanation.
We must remember that God is not limited to time. In fact, he is outside time. Imagine that you had the ability to travel back in time to your childhood. You have the strange opportunity of observing how you interact with others. Though you know the outcome as an adult, you are observing your childhood self-using the gift of free will to make decisions. You know how those decisions will turn out, but you as a child still used your gift of reason to decide. This analogy is, of course, a hypothetical one. Within the context of divine providence, we use our free will to cooperate with efficacious grace. Efficacious grace is grace given when we consent to it and always leads to good actions (Journet 2.10).
So, what of perseverative grace? Does God not grant us the power to persevere in grace? Regarding perseverance St. Thomas Aquinas writes that man “needs the Divine assistance guiding and guarding him against the attacks of the passions” (ST II, Q 109, A 10). This relates to free will and efficacious grace because, though it is freely given, it is still something that must be asked for. God will not deny this special help or deny his grace because of his divine providence (Hardon Ch. 3). Free will, efficacious grace, and perseverative grace can exist really and truly within the mystery of Divine Providence because they require an accent of the will and must be asked for.
Aquinas, Thomas. Summa Theologia. Trans. Thomas Gornall. Blackfriars, St. Joseph, IN: Ave Maria Press, 1981. Accessed August 10, 2018.
Hardon, John. History and Theology of Grace. Ann Arbor, MI: Sapientia Press, 2005.
Journet, Charles. The Meaning of Grace. Princeton: Scepter Publishers, 1997.
Within the theology of grace, we see a connection between the sacraments as instruments of grace, and Christ who is the instrument of grace. Opponents of the church argue that Christ is the sole mediator and cite 1 Timothy 2:5 as a prooftext. Regarding Christ being the only mediator between God and man the church agrees and has also taught it to be so. However, Christ can mediate in any way he desires since he is the second person of the blessed Trinity. Christ chose to mediate through the sacraments. Charles Journet describes this as, “Christ was to come as Mediator, to teach, to give his grace through the sacraments” (Journet 6.6).
It is important to make the distinction instruments of grace, and the instrument of grace. The two are quite different and the distinction is vital. The sacraments are instruments of grace because they were established by Christ to convey grace. He is the instrument through which the sacraments convey grace. St. Thomas Aquinas sums it up quite nicely when he writes, “The principal cause works by the power of its form, to which form the effect is likened; just as fire by its own heat makes something hot. In this way none but God can cause grace” (STIII, Q62, A1).
This is seen in all sacraments and in a profound way in the sacrament of reconciliation. In John 20:23 Jesus tells the disciples, “If you forgive the sins of any, they are forgiven them; if you retain the sins of any, they are retained” (NRSV). We go to the priest to confess our sins. We are not confessing our sins to a man, but a man who is acting in the person of Christ. It is not a man that is forgiving our sin, but Jesus is working through the priest to do so.
Reconciliation is a part of repentance, and the sinner shows his intention by word and deed. The absolving of sin done by the priest is the work of God who forgives sin (STIII, Q84, A1). This shows that the sacraments are instruments of grace, and that Christ is the cause. Christ is the instrument as he instituted the sacraments.
Aquinas, Thomas. Summa Theologia. Trans. Thomas Gornall. Blackfriars, St. Joseph, IN: Ave Maria Press, 1981. Accessed September 15, 2018.
Stevens, P.G. The Life of Grace. New York: Prentice Hall, 1963.
It is that time of year again. A time where millions of Christians the world over observe the season of Lent. Lent is a time of reflection and abstinence and teaches us that there are things more important than our carnal desires. Lent has been observed since the beginnings of the church and looks to the time that our Lord spend fasting in the desert before the start of his public ministry. St. Ignatius of Antioch in 110 AD said “Despise not the fast period of forty days, for it comprises an imitation of the conduct of the Lord”.
It is during this time of year that we hear of people giving up things. Some give up chocolate, social media, and coffee. Others give up something totally different. We give up these things to offer it up to God in prayer. Fasting without prayer is just dieting. If we are not praying and reading scripture then what are we doing? Chances are we are missing the point of what Lent is all about. A time of reflection, realigning priorities so God is in the forefront, and growing in love for Christ an our neighbor.
I urge you to not look at it as giving something up, but as taking something up. Use this forty day period to make a habit of a spiritual practice. If you are not currently praying on a daily basis you can give up 15 minutes of sleep or 15 minutes of your lunch break to pray. The same if you are not reading scripture. Adding these two practices to your day to day life will help you grow in your walk with Christ and remind you of what is important on a daily basis. Have a blessed Lent my friends.
My eyes have seen it, and I still can’t believe it. I read multiple news reports and thought I was trapped in some sort of alternate universe. However, it did happen, and no, I was not in an alternate universe. On February 25, 2018 the United States Senate voted down a bill that would protect babies who were born as a result of a botched abortion. Pamela Murray, who is a Senator from Washington, said she did so because it was not her job to get between a woman and her doctor. There is just one problem with this line of thinking. The child is outside of the womb. By voting against this bill the Senate has essentially endorsed infanticide. This is an event that I feared would come, but prayed that I would never see it.
This bill is heartless, callous, and goes against all senses of morality. Life begins at conception. This is something proven by science. Even if one doesn’t believe that, there is no doubt that the child born breathing after a botched abortion is very much alive. We have entered into a whole other realm of debauchery now. This is a slippery slope that will result, at some point, of Euthanasia for the elderly and infanticide for those born with disabilities. Pandora’s box has been opened.
To read more about the vote visit this link
The Epistle of James is a work that is written the diaspora and possibly Christians that are conservative in their appreciation for Judaism (Brown, 726). James is best known for its description of faith in relation to works in chapter two. James 2:17 states “So faith by itself, if it has no works, is dead.” Also James 2:24 states “You see that a person is justified by works and not by faith alone.” James basically says that if you say you are a Christian there better be something to substantiate your claim. Anyone can say they are a follower, but the proof needs to be made manifest in how we treat others, and how we help alleviate the suffering of other members of the Christian body. Brown states “In any period outsiders judge Christians by the commonsense standard of 2:26 that faith without works is dead; for them it would be a case of putting one’s money where one’s mouth is (Brown, page 731).
Another Catholic epistle is short but deals with those who stray from the faith, and that is the Epistle of Jude. Most scholars think that it was written to Christians in Palestine due to the “brothers of Jesus” reference. Jude is harsh and to the point when it comes to contending for the faith. Jude’s approach to teaching the faith is to be harsh and condemning of those who stray. The advice is good, but it is necessary to be aware of how Jude delivers it. According to the text it seems that intruders, or false teachers, have infiltrated the priesthood and corrupting the Eucharistic meal. Brown states “The most interesting image is that of corrupting the love feasts, since it reminds us of the early Christian agape meals, linked to the Eucharist (Brown, page 752).” The epistle calls us to stand fast and stand up for what we believe in. Jude 3 states “Beloved, while eagerly preparing to write to you about the salvation we share, I find it necessary to write and appeal to you to contend for the faith that was once for all entrusted to the saints.”
Brown, Raymond, An Introduction to the New Testament. New York: Doubleday, 1997
The Trinity is a complex subject, and at times is very misunderstood. Some try to rationalize and fall into error by declaring a type Tritheism, or even Modalism. However, the persons of the Trinity are three persons of one essence. The Trinitarian Godhead is made up of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit and all within the Trinity are two processions.
To understand this further it is helpful to define what a procession is. Within God there is a two-fold procession as was mentioned earlier. A procession is a general origin of one thing from another. There are two types of procession by which something can come. The first type of procession is known as Ad Extra. This type of procession speaks of something final springing from another. A good example of this would be a human father producing a son. From a theological perspective this is when something springs from God because God is the cause. The second procession type is Ad Intra, and this procession happens when something remains within its principal.
As previously stated, there are two typed of procession within the Trinity. It is also important to note that though different processions are present does not mean that there are different natures. Regarding this Garrigou-Lagrange state, “In the divine processions, for example, there is no diversity of nature (the nature remains numerically the same) but only a diversity of persons according to the opposition of relation” (Garrigou-Lagrange Introduction).
The Father proceeds from no one, and simply is because he has always been. The Father was never created nor begotten, but he does have the operations to know and to will (Lecture Notes). From these operations the Son and the Holy Spirit proceed respectively. To some this may seem that the Son and the Holy Spirit were somehow created? If that is the case then Church History needs to make amends with those who were condemned for heresy, but this is not the case. All are God, and it is from the Father that the Son and the Holy Spirit proceed in God (Garrigou-Lagrange Ch. VII).
The Son proceeds from the Father for all eternity through generation. This type of procession we can see in several places in sacred scripture and also tradition. One such passage is John 1:18 which states, “No one has ever seen God. It is God the only Son, who is close to the Father’s heart, who has made him known” (NRSV). Here we see the generation procession that indicates the special relationship and all-knowing nature of the Son. It is through him that we can have a knowledge of the Father. It is the Father’s principle that is being imitated, and this is because they are one essence (Garrigou-LaGrange Ch. VIII). In the tradition of the church, that is through the councils and writings of the early fathers, there is a constant teaching about the nature of Christ in relation to the Father. That teaching is that the Son is consubstantial and of the same substance of the Father, even though he is begotten. One cannot be begotten and consubstantial at the same time. The Son is the Son because he proceeds from generation.
The procession of the Holy Spirit varies from that of the Son. That is because the third person of the Trinity proceeds from the Father and the Son through spiration and as one principle (Lecture Notes). This is also seen in sacred scripture and tradition. One such verse is John 15:26 which states, “When the Advocate comes, whom I will send to you from the Father, the Spirit of truth who comes from the Father, he will testify on my behalf” (NRSV). This passage shows that the Spirit proceeds from the first two, and this is supported in early church writings from St. Augustine, St. Ambrose, and the Councils of Florence and Lyons.
Garrigou-Lagrange, Reginald. The Trinity and God the Creator. https://www.ewtn.com/library/THEOLOGY/TRINITY.HTM#00, accessed November 27, 2018.
In the early church many were attempting to understand the divinity of Christ, and in extension the Holy Trinity. Today, we have the benefit of the Church correcting false ideas. However, when these ideas were formulated there was not a dogmatic decree regarding the Trinity though the dogma had been taught in the earliest days of the church. The heresies of Monarchianism, Sabellianism, Subordinationism, and Arianism required that the church formally formulate the Trinitarian doctrine.
Dynamic Monarchian ism taught that the Father was true God, and that Christ was a man who was indwelled with a divine spirit (Preuss 126). Patripassian Monarchianism takes it a step further by acknowledging Christ as divine but does not go far enough as the two are not of the same substance. Sabellianism, or Modalism as it is also called, taught that God manifested himself in different modes and that there was only one person of the Godhead. In short, God was made up of one person (Garrigou-Lagrange Ch.5). Arianism denied the divinity of Christ and taught that He was a creation of the Father, and this was also the Arian view of the Holy Spirit. In that regard, he was subordinate to the Father. The heresies mentioned all have elements of subordinationism, because in various respects the divinity of Christ and the Holy Spirit is lowered.
With these heresies being taught the souls of the faithful were at risk. The church rightly saw that an attack on the persons of the Trinity was a salvific issue. Afterall, if Christ was not fully divine then his sacrifice on the cross meant little or nothing. The church responded to the heresies, and formally defined the Trinity at the Council of Nicea in 325.
Garrigou-Lagrange, Reginald. The Trinity and God the Creator. https://www.ewtn.com/library/THEOLOGY/TRINITY.HTM#05, accessed November 13, 2018.
Preuss, Arthur. The Divine Trinity. https://archive.org/details/divinetrinityad00pohlgoog, accessed November 12, 2018.