Matthew is a husband, father, and pursuer of truth. He is a contributor to Epic Pew, Catholic Exchange, Managing editor at Catholic Stand, and runs a blog at thesimplecatholic.blog. He has earned an Masters in Theology from Franciscan University of Steubenville and recently started pursuing his dream of being a freelance writer. In this episode Matthew discusses the Catholic teaching on the Eucharist and the biblical evidence to support it. We attempted to record this episode a couple times had some technology difficulties. I highly recommend you check out Matthew’s article on the Eucharist at https://thesimplecatholic.blog/2019/07/27/3-reasons-why-critically-reading-john-6-will-convert-protestants/
What is sacramentum tantum?
sacramentum tantum is a Latin word that describes the sacramental elements. They are the physical matter that is presented to be offered up in the sacrament. In the case of the Eucharist it would be bread and wine. The literal translation in English is “matter alone”. In an of themselves they are only elements and not sanctifying.
What is res et sacramentum?
The Latin term res et sacramentum contains the whole of the sacrament. It is when the physical properties and the grace of God become one. The grace and the physical elements are united, and this is what makes the sacraments effective. It is this terminology that shows that the sacraments are more than just elements. They are physical elements, infused with God’s grace, that are used to bring us into deeper relationship with him.
What is res tantum?
Res tantum is made up of two Latin words that mean “thing alone”. The “thing” that the phrase speaks of is the grace of God. This is the presence of the Lord God himself. Without this presence the elements of the sacrament remain merely physical. They would have no effect as a sacrament.
What is ex opere operato?
Ex opera operato is a term that refers to the work worked. This term is helpful when understanding how a sacrament is valid even if the one administering it may not be of the highest moral character. If everything is done through the church, and according to the command of Christ then the sacrament is valid. This term was also used in the medieval period to help keep maintain the relationship between the sacraments and faith and reason. The grace flows through the sacrament as long as the criteria mentioned above are met.
What is ex opere operantis?
Ex opera operantis is a term that refers to the work of the worker (Lecture Notes). Though a sacrament may be valid the disposition of the recipient must be in good order. We have a responsibility to cooperate with the grace given to us. We can block the grace of the sacrament by not believing what it truly it. Ex opere operantis and ex opera operato must work together as in any relationship.
The book of Joshua is an interesting book in the Old Testament. Moses has died, and the children of Israel are about to enter the promised land. Before they do so they must cross the Jordan river, but they have no way to cross. It is at this point that we must look at the power of God over nature. In Exodus the Lord parted the Red Sea so the Israelites could escape Pharaoh. In the book of Joshua God parted the Jordan River.
This can be read in Joshua 3:17 which states, “While all Israel were crossing over on dry ground, the priests who bore the ark of the covenant of the Lord stood on dry ground in the middle of the Jordan, until the entire nation finished crossing over the Jordan” (NRSV). Through baptism one parts the waters and is being led by the New Moses, which is Jesus Christ (Origen page 52). It is Christ, through his priesthood, that leads us into the future.
This is important for those of you who are being baptized. God has shown over and over what he can do in the natural realm. He parted the Red Sea, he provided manna from Heaven, and today He begins a new work in you. Through Baptism you step in the water, just as the twelve tribes did in the book of Joshua, and the waters part. You now follow the priests of Christ into the land of our inheritance (Origen page 53).
Through of your baptism you are dying and rising with Christ. This is a great responsibility, and a great honor. Christ is exalted when you come to the baptismal waters, and he is happy that you are here. Follow Christ and keep him close. Do not fall back into sin and be like the Egyptians who were swallowed up by the Red Sea.
Origen, et al. Homilies on Joshua. Catholic University of America Press, 2002. The Fathers of the Church.
On my journey into the Catholic church there were three things that had the potential to derail me. Mary, Mary, and Mary. One of the objections I had, which sprang from my Baptist days, was the title of Mother of God for Mary.
After all God is eternal and has always existed. That title, at least in my mind back then, meant that somehow Mary was exalted to a deified state in which she surely didn’t belong. and one she would surely object to herself. How can a mere mortal be the Mother of God? Thsi objection is one that is till quite prominent. If you don’t believe me feel free to visit a Protestant/Catholic discussion forum on Facebook. Simply ask if Mary is the Mother of God and watch the sparks fly.
This issue was settled by the church in the 400’s at the Council of Ephesus. Nestorius, the Bishop of Constantinople, objected to the long revered title of Mary known as Theotokos. This is a Greek term that simply means “God-bearer”. Nestorius decided to use a different term known as Christokos, or “Christ-bearer”. This term is problematic for a couple reasons. First and foremost Nestorius used this term in an attempt to maintain the two natures of Christ, but he failed, because by using this term, he separated the human and divine nature of Christ from the person of Christ. His attempt to be Orthodox led him into heresy because Jesus had a human and divine nature while in the womb of Mary.
To say that Mary only gave birth the to human Jesus would deny the teaching of scripture that states he is human and divine. Secondly, if Mary only gave birth to the human Jesus when did his divine nature arrive? Do you see the Christological dilemma? Either Jesus had both natures since conception or he did not. To say he did not is to fall into error. Adoptionism is one result that can come from this line of thinking, the other is one that denies the hypostatic union. The latter is what would become known as Nestorianism.
The fact of Jesus having a human and divine nature coexisting in the one person of Jesus was upheld by the Council of Ephesus in 431. As a result the Greek term for Mary known as Theotokos was upheld. In short calling Mary the Mother of God has everything to do with understanding Jesus properly, and even less to do with Mary. Regarding this para 495 of the Catechis states, “Called in the Gospels ‘the mother of Jesus, Mary is acclaimed by Elizabeth, at the prompting of the Spirit and even before the birth of her son, as “the mother of my Lord”. In fact, the One whom she conceived as man by the Holy Spirit, who truly became her Son according to the flesh, was none other than the Father’s eternal Son, the second person of the Holy Trinity. Hence the Church confesses that Mary is truly “Mother of God” (Theotokos)”.
As stated a few sentences ago, Jesus was fully God and fully man from the time of his conception. Mary gave birth to the second person of the Trinity, not a boy who would latter take on a divine nature. The divine nature was already there. Since Mary gave birth to Jesus, who we affirm to be God incarnate, she gave birth to God. Yes my friends, it really is that simple. Nestorianism is the logical consequence for those who deny the Theotokos.
Catechism of the Catholic Church, http://www.vatican.va/archive/ccc_css/archive/catechism/p122a3p2.htm
When it comes to Catholic social teaching it is fairly easy to find books on individual topics. In this volume, which is a third, edition, Kevin E. McKenna gives concise explanations on every aspect of Catholic social teaching. The author is Pastor and Rector of the Cathedral community in Rochester, NY. He has extensive experience in Catholic social teaching and Canon law. He is also the general editor for the concise series by Ave Maria Press.
The book is broken down into seven chapters that delve with vital topics such as the dignity of life and care for God’s creation. What I appreciated most, besides the conciseness of the work, was that the beginnings of each chapter listed the various encyclicals and church documents that are summarized. This allows the reader to find those documents and read them for themselves.
As previously stated, this is the third edition and the encyclicals written by Pope Francis have been included in this volume. This book is a must have in my opinion because it is a good reference piece. If there is a question on a topic of Catholic social teaching this resource is one that can be used easily to get the answer. It is good for anyone who teaches or writes about the faith s these issues will come up regularly.
[Note: This book was obtained free of charge from Ave Maria Press in exchange for an honest review.]
When we speak of divine providence it can be hard to understand how free will, efficacious grace, and perseverative grace can exist can fully exist within its context. If God knows how everything will turn out, then how can we truly exercise free will? These topics can be confusing to those who are just beginning their journey in faith, but they do have an explanation.
We must remember that God is not limited to time. In fact, he is outside time. Imagine that you had the ability to travel back in time to your childhood. You have the strange opportunity of observing how you interact with others. Though you know the outcome as an adult, you are observing your childhood self-using the gift of free will to make decisions. You know how those decisions will turn out, but you as a child still used your gift of reason to decide. This analogy is, of course, a hypothetical one. Within the context of divine providence, we use our free will to cooperate with efficacious grace. Efficacious grace is grace given when we consent to it and always leads to good actions (Journet 2.10).
So, what of perseverative grace? Does God not grant us the power to persevere in grace? Regarding perseverance St. Thomas Aquinas writes that man “needs the Divine assistance guiding and guarding him against the attacks of the passions” (ST II, Q 109, A 10). This relates to free will and efficacious grace because, though it is freely given, it is still something that must be asked for. God will not deny this special help or deny his grace because of his divine providence (Hardon Ch. 3). Free will, efficacious grace, and perseverative grace can exist really and truly within the mystery of Divine Providence because they require an accent of the will and must be asked for.
Aquinas, Thomas. Summa Theologia. Trans. Thomas Gornall. Blackfriars, St. Joseph, IN: Ave Maria Press, 1981. Accessed August 10, 2018.
Hardon, John. History and Theology of Grace. Ann Arbor, MI: Sapientia Press, 2005.
Journet, Charles. The Meaning of Grace. Princeton: Scepter Publishers, 1997.
Within the theology of grace, we see a connection between the sacraments as instruments of grace, and Christ who is the instrument of grace. Opponents of the church argue that Christ is the sole mediator and cite 1 Timothy 2:5 as a prooftext. Regarding Christ being the only mediator between God and man the church agrees and has also taught it to be so. However, Christ can mediate in any way he desires since he is the second person of the blessed Trinity. Christ chose to mediate through the sacraments. Charles Journet describes this as, “Christ was to come as Mediator, to teach, to give his grace through the sacraments” (Journet 6.6).
It is important to make the distinction instruments of grace, and the instrument of grace. The two are quite different and the distinction is vital. The sacraments are instruments of grace because they were established by Christ to convey grace. He is the instrument through which the sacraments convey grace. St. Thomas Aquinas sums it up quite nicely when he writes, “The principal cause works by the power of its form, to which form the effect is likened; just as fire by its own heat makes something hot. In this way none but God can cause grace” (STIII, Q62, A1).
This is seen in all sacraments and in a profound way in the sacrament of reconciliation. In John 20:23 Jesus tells the disciples, “If you forgive the sins of any, they are forgiven them; if you retain the sins of any, they are retained” (NRSV). We go to the priest to confess our sins. We are not confessing our sins to a man, but a man who is acting in the person of Christ. It is not a man that is forgiving our sin, but Jesus is working through the priest to do so.
Reconciliation is a part of repentance, and the sinner shows his intention by word and deed. The absolving of sin done by the priest is the work of God who forgives sin (STIII, Q84, A1). This shows that the sacraments are instruments of grace, and that Christ is the cause. Christ is the instrument as he instituted the sacraments.
Aquinas, Thomas. Summa Theologia. Trans. Thomas Gornall. Blackfriars, St. Joseph, IN: Ave Maria Press, 1981. Accessed September 15, 2018.
Stevens, P.G. The Life of Grace. New York: Prentice Hall, 1963.
It is that time of year again. A time where millions of Christians the world over observe the season of Lent. Lent is a time of reflection and abstinence and teaches us that there are things more important than our carnal desires. Lent has been observed since the beginnings of the church and looks to the time that our Lord spend fasting in the desert before the start of his public ministry. St. Ignatius of Antioch in 110 AD said “Despise not the fast period of forty days, for it comprises an imitation of the conduct of the Lord”.
It is during this time of year that we hear of people giving up things. Some give up chocolate, social media, and coffee. Others give up something totally different. We give up these things to offer it up to God in prayer. Fasting without prayer is just dieting. If we are not praying and reading scripture then what are we doing? Chances are we are missing the point of what Lent is all about. A time of reflection, realigning priorities so God is in the forefront, and growing in love for Christ an our neighbor.
I urge you to not look at it as giving something up, but as taking something up. Use this forty day period to make a habit of a spiritual practice. If you are not currently praying on a daily basis you can give up 15 minutes of sleep or 15 minutes of your lunch break to pray. The same if you are not reading scripture. Adding these two practices to your day to day life will help you grow in your walk with Christ and remind you of what is important on a daily basis. Have a blessed Lent my friends.