I recently came across a question that asked if any Popes were martyred. This is a great list.
Reliable evidence indicates that the following popes were martyred.
1. Pope St. Peter the Apostle of Rome (33-64)
Pope St. Peter, the Prince of the Apostles, was crucified upside-down in Rome (Kirsch).
2. Pope St. Anacletus of Rome (76-4/26/88)
“We know he died a martyr” (Campbell).
3. Pope St. Clement I of Rome (88-11/23/97)
Rufinus in 400 is the first to mention the martyrdom of Pope St. Clement I (Chapman). In 417 Pope St. Zosimus [Letter 2] said St. Clement gave his life to testify to the faith he learned from St. Peter (ibid.). Predestinatus called him a martyr in 430, as did the 442 Synod of Vaison (ibid.). That he died in exile is supported by the absence of a tradition that he was interred in Rome (ibid.). St. Constantine-Cyril, Apostle to the Slavs (827-2/14/869), discovered his…
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